National Academy of Sciences
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Awarded to honor noteworthy and distinguished accomplishments in any field of science within the charter of the Academy. The recipient is awarded a $25,000 prize. Established by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
Joseph L. DeRisi (2014, genome biology)
For pioneering efforts to develop new genomic technologies and using the technologies to make discoveries in virology that are of fundamental and practical importance.
Michael I. Posner (2012, cognitive science)
For outstanding contributions to the understanding of spatial attention and for pioneering investigations of the neural basis of cognition using non-invasive functional brain imaging methods.
Andre K. Geim (2010, physics)
for his experimental realization and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon.
Joseph Felsenstein (2009, evolution)
For revolutionizing population genetics, phylogenetic biology, and systematics by developing a sophisticated computational framework to deduce evolutionary relationships of genes and species from molecular data.
Thomas Eisner (2008, ecology)
For pathbreaking studies of the myriad ways that organisms utilize chemistry to mediate ecological interactions and providing a foundation for the field of chemical ecology.
Joseph R. Ecker (2007, plant science)
For contributions in the areas of ethylene signal transduction and Arabidopsis genomics that have paved the way for a revolution in modern agriculture.
Russell F. Doolittle (2006, computational science)
For contributing seminal insights and methods for using computers as an aid to characterizing protein function, in comparing amino acid sequences, and for phylogenetic reconstructions.
Robert J. Cava (2005, materials)
For his outstanding contributions in the synthesis and characterization of many new materials that display interesting and important superconducting, dielectric, magnetic, or thermal properties.
Elinor Ostrom (2004, social/political science)
For her exceptional contributions to the study of social institutions, research that has greatly advanced our understanding of resource management, and the governance of local public economies.
David A. Freedman (2003, statistics)
For his profound contributions to the theory and practice of statistics, including rigorous foundations for Bayesian influence and trenchant analysis of census adjustment.
Donald Lynden-Bell (2000, astronomy/astrophysics)
For his outstanding work in theoretical astrophysics, and especially for the originality of his contributions to our understanding of the collective dynamic effects within stellar systems.
Patrick V. Kirch (1997, anthropology)
For the unique breadth of his distinguished anthropological accomplishments, spanning many Pacific islands and joining their archeology with ethnobotany, ethnobiohistory, historical linguistics, and human biology.
Marina Ratner (1994, mathematics)
For her striking proof of the Raghunathan conjectures.
Joseph H. Taylor, Jr. (1991, physics)
For developing pulsar timing experiments with exquisite accuracy to make fundamental studies of gravitation, including gravitational radiation and high-order tests of general relativity.
Motoo Kimura (1987, evolutionary biology)
By demonstrating the role of stochastic processes in inducing and maintaining most allelic diveristy in nature, he has unified molecular biology with evolutionary theory, thereby strengthening both fields.
Robert H. Burris (1984, agricultural sciences)
For his penetrating studies of the biochemistry of nitrogen fixation have enriched the agricultural sciences by deed and example.
Shing-Tung Yau (1981, mathematics)
John N. Mather (1978, pure mathematics)
J. Tuzo Wilson (1975, earth science)
James D. Watson (1971, molecular biology)
Murray Gell-Mann (1968, theoretical physics)
Alfred H. Sturtevant (1965, biochemistry)
Maurice Ewing (1963, geophysics)
Charles H. Townes (1961, physics)
Vannevar Bush (1953)
Irving Langmuir (1950)
Ross G. Harrison (1947)
William F. Durand (1945)
Edwin G. Conklin (1943)
Sir William Bragg (1939)
Edmund B. Wilson (1936)
John J. Carty (1932)