The Science of Science Communication
May 21-22, 2012
National Academy of Sciences
Paula S. Apsell
Paula S. Apsell got her start in broadcasting at WGBH Boston, typing the public broadcaster's daily television program logs—a job, she notes, is now, mercifully, automated. Within a year, she found her way to WGBH Radio, where she developed the award-winning children's drama series, "The Spider's Web." She later became a radio news producer. In 1975 she joined WGBH's NOVA, a science documentary series that has set the standard for science programming on television. After leaving NOVA in 1981, Ms. Apsell went to WCVB, the ABC affiliate in Boston, as senior producer for medical programming, working with Dr. Timothy Johnson. Ms. Apsell then spent a year at MIT as a Knight Science Journalism Fellow. In 1985, she took over the reins at NOVA, where she is now senior executive producer and director of the WGBH Science Unit. Along with overseeing the production of NOVA documentaries and miniseries for television, she has taken the series' online and today NOVA is one of the most-visited sites on PBS.org. NOVA is also the most widely used video resource among high school science teachers.
In 2005, Ms. Apsell introduced a NOVA spinoff, NOVA scienceNOW, a critically acclaimed science newsmagazine hosted formerly by Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson and now by New York Times technology columnist David Pogue. Other recent signature NOVA and Science Unit productions include "The Elegant Universe," "Origins," "Einstein's Big Idea," "Judgment Day: Intelligent Design on Trial," "Making Stuff," and the large-format feature, "Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure." Under Ms. Apsell's leadership, NOVA has won every major broadcasting award many times over, including the Emmy, the Peabody, the AAAS Science Journalism Award, and the Gold Baton duPont-Columbia, as well as an Academy Award® nomination for the large format film "Special Effects." In 1998, the National Science Board of the National Science Foundation awarded NOVA its first-ever Public Service Award. Ms. Apsell has a B.A. from Brandeis University. She has served on the board of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, the Brandeis University Sciences Advisory Committee, and the International Documentary Association.
Dominique Brossard is an associate professor and director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Life Sciences Communication at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She is on the Steering Committee of the UW-Madison Robert and Jean Holtz Center for Science and Technology Studies, and a member of the UW Center for Global Studies. She is also the leader of the Societal Implications of Nanotechnology group in the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC). Her teaching responsibilities include courses in strategic communication theory and research, with a focus on science and risk communication. Dr. Brossard's research program focuses on the intersection between science, media, and policy. One of the Board members of the International Network of Public Communication of Science and Technology, Dr. Brossard in an internationally known expert in public opinion dynamics related to controversial scientific innovations, such as biotechnology, stem cell research, nanotechnology, and nuclear energy. She is particularly interested in understanding the role of values in shaping public attitudes, and in cross-cultural analysis to understand these processes, with a special emphasis on the online environment. She has published numerous research articles in outlets such as Science, Science Communication, the International Journal of Public Opinion, Public Understanding of Science and Communication Research.
Her professional background is varied. She has experience in the lab and in the corporate world; she spent five years at Accenture in its Change Management Services Division. She was the communication coordinator for the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II (ABSPII), a position that combined public relations with marketing communication and strategic communication. The goal of ABSPII (a multimillion-dollar project funded by USAID) is to support the development of expertise in the areas of research, policy development, licensing, and outreach related to agricultural biotechnology. Through this work, she traveled to Africa, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Dr. Brossard earned her M.S. in plant biotechnology from Ecole Nationale d'Agronomie de Toulouse and her Ph.D. in communication from Cornell University.
Wändi Bruine de Bruin is an associate professor in Carnegie Mellon's Department of Engineering and Public Policy. Her research interests include the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as risk perception and communication. Her research aims to understand how people make decisions about the risks that they face, and to develop communications aiming to improve those decisions. Her work is interdisciplinary in nature and involves collaborations with engineers, public health experts, and economists. She has recently edited a special issue on decision-making competence for the Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, for which she also serves on the editorial board. She has published in peer-reviewed journals in multiple disciplines, including psychology, environmental science, economics, and public health. She has contributed her expertise to advisory panels and workshops organized by various organizations, including the Centers of Disease Control, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Federal Reserve Bank, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Research Council. She has a M.Sc. in cognitive psychology from the Free University of Amsterdam and a M.Sc. and Ph.D. in behavioral decision theory from Carnegie Mellon University.
Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences and chair of the National Research Council. His research in atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and energy has been instrumental in shaping science and environmental policy at the highest levels nationally and internationally. Early in his career, Dr. Cicerone was a research scientist and held faculty positions in electrical and computer engineering at the University of Michigan. The Ralph J. Cicerone Distinguished University Professorship of Atmospheric Science was established there in his honor in 2007. In 1978, he joined the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, as a research chemist. From 1980 to 1989, he was a senior scientist and director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. In 1989, he joined the University of California, Irvine, where he was founding chair of the Department of Earth System Science and was appointed the Daniel G. Aldrich Professor of Earth System Science. As dean of the School of Physical Sciences from 1994 to 1998, he recruited outstanding faculty and strengthened the school’s curriculum and outreach programs. Immediately prior to his election as Academy president, Dr. Cicerone served as chancellor of U.C Irvine from 1998 to 2005, a period marked by a rapid rise in the academic capabilities of the campus.
Dr. Cicerone has received a number of honorary degrees and many awards for his scientific work. Among the latter, the Franklin Institute recognized his fundamental contributions to the understanding of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion and his public policy leadership in protecting the global environment by selecting Dr. Cicerone as the 1999 laureate for the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science. In 2001, he led a National Academy of Sciences study of the current state of climate change and its impact on the environment and human health. The American Geophysical Union awarded Dr. Cicerone its James B. Macelwane Award in 1979 for outstanding contributions to geophysics by a young scientist and its 2002 Roger Revelle Medal for outstanding research contributions to the understanding of Earth’s atmospheric processes, biogeochemical cycles, and other key elements of the climate system. In 2004, the World Cultural Council honored him with the Albert Einstein World Award in Science. In addition to the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. Cicerone is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Korean Academy of Science and Technology. He also has served as president of the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Cicerone received his B.S. in electrical engineering from MIT and his M.S. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering, with a minor in physics, at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana.
Vicki L. Colvin is vice provost for Research, the Kenneth S. Pitzer Schlumberger Professor of Chemistry, and Professor of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at Rice University. She also is the director of the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, one of the nation’s first nanoscience and engineering centers funded by the National Science Foundation. Her research explores how nanoscale particles interact with the environment and living systems. This work draws on both synthetic chemistry for the preparation and control of novel nanophase systems as well as physical chemistry for the investigation of their unusual behavior. Currently her projects draw on the unique and responsive behavior of nanoparticles to solve problems related to water purification and targeted cell death. She also is taking the lead on a joint effort between the United States and the United Kingdom aimed at developing guidelines and tools for governments trying to regulate nanomaterials. Dr. Colvin was named one of Discover Magazine's "Top 20 Scientists to Watch" and received an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in 2002. Her research in low-field magnetic separation of nanocrystals was named Top Five (no. 2 of 5) Nanotech Breakthroughs of 2006 by Forbes/Wolfe Nanotech Report, and resulted in her being named 2007 Best & Brightest Honoree by Esquire Magazine. She also was named a Fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007-2008. Dr. Colvin is a frequent contributor to Science, Advanced Materials, Physical Review Letters, and other peer-reviewed journals. She has authored/co-authored more than 75 articles. She also holds five patents, with ten patent applications in process. Dr. Colvin received her B.S. from Stanford University and her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.
Michael M. Crow became the 16th president of Arizona State University (ASU) in 2002. He is guiding the transformation of ASU into one of the nation’s leading public metropolitan research universities. Under his direction, the university is teaching research and creative excellence focused on the major challenges and questions of our time, as well as on those central to the building of a culturally vibrant and sustainable environment and economy for Arizona. He has committed the university to global engagement and to setting a new standard for public service. Since Dr. Crow took office, ASU has marked a number of important milestones: the establishment of major interdisciplinary research initiatives such as the Biodesign Institute; the Global Institute for Sustainability; and MacroTechnology Works, a program integrating science and technology for large-scale applications, including the Flexible Display Center, a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Army. Under his direction, ASU has initiated a dramatic research infrastructure expansion with the goal of creating more than one million square feet of new research space. Dr. Crow also has announced naming gifts endowing the W. P. Carey School of Business, the Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, and the Virginia G. Piper Center for Creative Writing. Prior to joining ASU, Dr. Crow was executive vice provost of Columbia University, as well as professor of science and technology policy in the School of International and Public Affairs. As chief strategist of Columbia's research enterprise, he led technology and innovation transfer operations, establishing Columbia Innovation Enterprises (now Science and Technology Ventures), the Strategic Initiative Program, the Columbia Digital Media Initiative, and the development of other interdisciplinary programs. He played the lead role in the creation of the Columbia Earth Institute (CEI) and helped found the Center for Science Policy and Outcomes (CSPO) in Washington D.C. CPSO is a think tank dedicated to linking science and technology to desired social economic and environmental outcomes. In 2003, CSPO was reestablished at ASU as the Consortium for Science Policy and Outcomes. A fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration, Dr. Crow is the author of books and articles related to the analysis of the technology transfer policies of research organizations and the practice and theory of public policy. He received a B.A. in political science environmental studies from the University of Iowa and a Ph.D. in public policy from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University.
Thomas Dietz is a professor of sociology and environmental science and policy and assistant vice president for environmental research at Michigan State University (MSU). During his tenure at MSU, Dr. Dietz has been the founding director of the Environmental Science and Policy Program and associate dean in the Colleges of Social Science, Agriculture and Natural Resources and Natural Science. Dr. Dietz is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has been awarded the Sustainability Science Award of the Ecological Society of America, the Distinguished Contribution Award, as well as the Outstanding Publication Award, from the American Sociological Association Section on Environment, Technology and Society. He also received the Gerald R. Young Book Award from the Society for Human Ecology. At the National Research Council, Dr. Dietz has served as chair of the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Human Dimensions of Global Change and the Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Currently, he is the vice chair of the Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change of the America’s Climate Choices study. Dr. Dietz has also served as secretary of Section K (Social, Economic, and Political Sciences) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is the former president of the Society for Human Ecology. He has co-authored or co-edited 11 books and more than 100 papers and book chapters. His current research examines the human driving forces of environmental change, environmental values, and the interplay between science and democracy in environmental issues. Dr. Dietz is an active participant in the Ecological and Cultural Change Studies Group at MSU. He holds a B.S. in general studies from Kent State University and a Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis.
William P. “Chip” Eveland, Jr. is professor of communication and (by courtesy) political science at The Ohio State University. He also is affiliated with Ohio State’s Mershon Center for International Security Studies. Dr. Eveland’s research focuses on the role of political communication – through traditional news and online media as well as face-to-face and computer-mediated communication – in developing informed and participatory citizens of democracy. His recent research has emphasized the contributions of macro-social factors and social network characteristics as well as psychological processes as mediators and moderators of communication effects. He is currently analyzing data from real world political conversations and conducting social network analyses of political discussion networks. Dr. Eveland has published more than 40 peer-reviewed articles in journals such as Political Communication, Political Behavior, Political Psychology, Journal of Communication, Communication Research, and Media Psychology. He has also published chapters in major edited volumes, including Communication and Social Cognition; The Sage Handbook of Public Opinion Research; The Persuasion Handbook; Sourcebook for Political Communication Research; and The Sage Sourcebook of Advanced Data Analysis Methods for Communication Research. His research has been cited well over 1,000 times in fields as diverse as communication, political science, information and library science, business, computer science, and education. His academic achievements have been recognized by the International Communication Association’s Young Scholar Award (2003) and the Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication’s Krieghbaum Under-40 Award (2007). The University of Delaware recognized his academic contributions with its Presidential Citation for Outstanding Achievement (2008). Dr. Eveland earned his B.A. and M.A from the University of Delaware and his Ph.D. in mass communication from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Baruch Fischhoff is the Howard Heinz University Professor in the Departments of Social and Decision Sciences and Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University, where he heads the decision sciences major. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and is a past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making and the Society for Risk Analysis. He chaired the Food and Drug Administration Risk Communication Advisory Committee and the National Research Council Committee on Behavioral and Social Science Research. The topic under discussion for both committees was improving Intelligence analysis for national security. Dr. Fischoff has been a member of the Eugene, Oregon, Commission on the Rights of Women, the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee, and the Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Advisory Board, where he chaired the Homeland Security Advisory Committee. He has written or edited nine books: Acceptable Risk (1981), A Two-State Solution in the Middle East: Prospects and Possibilities (1993), Preference Elicitation (1999), Risk Communication: The Mental Models Approach (2001), Intelligence Analysis: Behavioral and Social Science Foundations (2011), Risk: A Very Short Introduction (2011), Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide (2011), Judgment and Decision Making (2011), and Risk Analysis and Human Behavior (2011). A graduate of the Detroit Public Schools, Dr. Fischhoff holds a B.S. in mathematics and psychology from Wayne State University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
David Fischhoff, vice president of technology strategy and development for Monsanto Company, has held leadership roles in the areas of technology strategy, new technology acquisition, management of the R&D portfolio, and intellectual property. He also is a member of Nidus Partners LP, a unique collaboration between entrepreneurs and corporations working to identify and commercialize innovative technologies in the field of energy. Since 1983, Dr. Fischhoff has held multiple positions at Monsanto in biotechnology research and business development. Dr. Fischhoff invented and developed insect resistant transgenic crop plants and co-invented the “synthetic gene” technology for expression of Bt genes in plants, which was the breakthrough that made possible Monsanto’s highly successful seeds with insect-resistant biotech traits. Dr. Fischhoff also initiated and led Monsanto’s plant genomics research program. From 1998 through 2002, he was president of Cereon Genomics, a Monsanto subsidiary, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cereon Genomics was a collaborative research venture between Monsanto and Millennium Pharmaceuticals and functioned as Monsanto’s primary genomics research center. Today Dr. Fischhoff is a driving force for scientific research and a champion of the Monsanto Fellows program – creating an environment of scientific thought and exchange and harnessing this community to study issues such as global warming and biofuels. Dr. Fischoff holds a B.S. in biology from M.I.T. and a Ph.D. in genetics and molecular biology from the Rockefeller University.
Jack Gibbons began his career in physics. For 15 years he conducted experiments in nuclear structure at Duke and then Oak Ridge, with an emphasis on neutron capture reactions--key to understanding nucleosynthesis of heavy elements inside stars. His growing interest in energy resource conservation and the environment led him to undertake work at the University of Tennessee on technologies for increased efficiency throughout the energy services system. He was appointed the first director of the U.S. Office of Energy Conservation (1973-1974) and later led related studies at The National Academies. He directed the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (1979-1992) and was science advisor to President Bill Clinton (1993- 1998). Post-White House, he was senior advisor to the Department of State, assisting the Secretary in creating the post of science advisor to the Secretary. He was the MIT Compton Lecturer (1998-1999), senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering (1999-2000), and president of Sigma Xi (2000-2001). In addition, Dr. Gibbons chaired the Board of Population Action International (2003-2006) and is a member of the board. He served on Virginia’s Commission on Climate Change (2008). He is a board member of the Environmental and Energy Study Institute and serves on the MIT Visiting Committee on Earth, Air, and Planetary Science. He also is division advisor for the National Research Council Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences.
Dr. Gibbons’s numerous national and international awards include six honorary doctorates. He has written extensively on national science and technology policy, energy supply and demand, conservation, resource management, nuclear physics, and origins of solar system elements. He has authored or co-authored about 100 publications and books, including Energy: The Conservation Revolution and This Gifted Age: Science and Technology at the Millennium, which includes selections from his writings spanning more than 30 years in public service. In 2007, he received the Lifetime Achievement in Energy Efficiency award by the Alliance to Save Energy. In 2009, the U.S. Energy Association/Johnson Controls inducted him into their Hall of Fame as a pioneer in energy policy and implementation. Dr. Gibbons received his B.S. in mathematics and chemistry from Randolph-Macon and his Ph.D. in physics from Duke University.
Dr. John P. Holdren is Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and Co-Chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Prior to joining the Obama administration Dr. Holdren was Teresa and John Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy and Director of the Program on Science, Technology, and Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, as well as professor in Harvard's Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Director of the independent, nonprofit Woods Hole Research Center. Previously he was on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, where he co-founded in 1973 and co-led until 1996 the interdisciplinary graduate-degree program in energy and resources. During the Clinton administration Dr. Holdren served as a member of PCAST through both terms and in that capacity chaired studies requested by President Clinton on preventing theft of nuclear materials, disposition of surplus weapon plutonium, the prospects of fusion energy, U.S. energy R&D strategy, and international cooperation on energy-technology innovation.
He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as a foreign member of the Royal Society of London and former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He served as a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Board of Trustees from 1991 to 2005, as Chair of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control from 1994 to 2005, and as Co-Chair of the independent, bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy from 2002 to 2009. His awards include a MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellowship, the John Heinz Prize in Public Policy, the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, and the Volvo Environment Prize. In December 1995 he gave the acceptance lecture for the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, an international organization of scientists and public figures in which he held leadership positions from 1982 to 1997. Dr. Holdren holds advanced degrees in aerospace engineering and theoretical plasma physics from MIT and Stanford.
Dan Kahan is the Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of Law and Professor of Psychology at Yale Law School. He is a member of the Cultural Cognition Project, an interdisciplinary team of scholars who use empirical methods to examine the impact of group values on perceptions of risk and related facts. In studies funded by the National Science Foundation, the Project has investigated public disagreement over climate change, public reactions to emerging technologies, and conflicting public impressions of scientific consensus. The Project’s research has been featured in articles published in a variety of peer-reviewed scholarly journals including the Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, the Journal of Risk Research, Nature Nanotechnology, and Nature.
Daniel Kahneman is a senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He also is professor of psychology and public affairs emeritus at the Woodrow Wilson School, the Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Princeton University, and a fellow of the Center for Rationality at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. During his career, Dr. Kahneman has held the following positions: professor of psychology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem (1970-1978), professor at the University of British Columbia (1978-1986), and professor at the University of California, Berkeley (1986-1994). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, the Society of Experimental Psychologists, and the Econometric Society. He has been the recipient of many awards, among them the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association (1982) and the Grawemeyer Prize (2002), both jointly with Amos Tversky; the Warren Medal of the Society of Experimental Psychologists (1995); the Hilgard Award for Career Contributions to General Psychology (1995), the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences (2002), the Thomas C. Schelling Award for intellectual contributions to policy, and the Lifetime Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association (2007). In 2012, he was elected Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association. Dr. Kahneman received a B.A. in psychology and mathematics from the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley. He also holds honorary degrees from numerous Universities.
David Keith has worked near the interface between climate science, energy technology, and public policy for 20 years. He took first prize in Canada's national physics prize exam, won MIT's prize for excellence in experimental physics, and was listed as one of Time Magazine's Heroes of the Environment in 2009. Dr. Keith serves as the Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) at Harvard and professor of public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. He divides his time between Boston and Calgary, where he serves as president of Carbon Engineering, a startup company developing industrial-scale technologies for capturing CO2 from ambient air. Dr. Keith has served on numerous high-profile advisory panels, such as the UK Royal Society's geoengineering study, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and various Canadian "blue ribbon" panels and boards. He has addressed the scientific community through articles in Science and Nature; consulted for national governments, global industry leaders, and international environmental groups; and reached the public through venues such as the BBC, NPR, CNN, and the editorial page of The New York Times. Dr. Keith received a B.Sc. in physics from the University of Toronto and a Ph.D. in experimental physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
David Klahr holds the Walter van Dyke Bingham Chair of Cognitive Development and Education Sciences in the Department of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). Earlier in his career, he held appointments at the University of Chicago’s School of Business, the University of Stirling, Scotland, and the London School of Business. He returned to Carnegie Mellon in 1969 and became a full professor in 1976. He was head of the psychology department from 1983 to 1993 and is currently director of the Program in Interdisciplinary Education Research (PIER), a pre-doctoral training grant funded by the Office of Education, and the training director of the NSF-funded Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center. Dr.Klahr’s research has focused on the analysis of cognitive processes in such areas as voting behavior, college admissions, consumer choice, peer review, problem solving, and scientific reasoning. He pioneered the formulation of computational models of cognitive development. Currently, he is investigating the cognitive processes that support children's understanding of the fundamental principles underlying scientific thinking. This work includes both basic research with preschool children and more applied classroom studies of how to improve the teaching of experimental science in elementary and middle school.
Dr. Klahr is CMU’s first member of the National Academy of Education, a fellow of the American Psychological Association, and a charter fellow of the American Psychological Society. He has served on three committees of the National Research Council: the Committee on Foundations of Educational Assessment (Knowing What Students Know, National Academies Press, 2001); the Committee on Research in Education (Advancing Scientific Research in Education, National Academies Press, 2004), and the Committee on Science Learning (Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8, National Academies Press, 2007). He also serves as a member of the advisory board for the Understanding Human Cognition initiative of the James S. McDonnell Foundation. Dr. Klahr received his B.S. from MIT in electrical engineering and his Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon's Graduate School of Industrial Administration (GSIA, now the Tepper School of Business) in organizations and social behavior.
Barbara Kline Pope is Executive Director for Communications at the National Academies* and Executive Director of the National Academies Press. She is responsible for innovative and dynamic programs for bringing science, engineering, and medicine to public audiences including the Science & Entertainment Exchange, the Science Ambassador Program, and “What You Need to Know About” series of websites and booklets. She blends her responsibilities for communicating to diverse audiences with her leadership of the Academies’ publishing operation of both scholarly and trade books that have been available on the Web free to read since 1995. She won the 2007 INFORMS Society for Marketing Science Practice Prize, “Pricing Digital Content Product Lines: A Model and Application for the National Academies Press.” She has been guest lecturer for marketing and technology courses at the University of Maryland. She is a member of the Corporate Advisory Board for the marketing department at the R.H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland, the Board of the Association of American University Presses, the Management Board of the MIT Press, and the Encyclopedia of Life Education and Outreach Advisory Committee. She holds an M.S. (1990) from the University of Maryland and a B.S. (1981) from Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
*National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council.
Jon Krosnick is a social psychologist who conducts research on attitude formation; change and its effects on the psychology of political behavior; and survey research methods. He is the Frederic O. Glover Professor in Humanities and Social Sciences, professor of communication, professor of political science, and professor of psychology (by courtesy) at Stanford University, as well as the director of the Political Psychology Research Group and the Summer Institute in Political Psychology. Prior to joining the Stanford faculty in 2004, Dr. Krosnick was professor of psychology and political science at Ohio State University (OSU), where he was a member of the OSU Political Psychology Program and co-directed the OSU Summer Institute in Political Psychology. He has taught courses on survey methodology around the world at universities, for corporations, (IBM, Total Research Corporation, and Pfizer); nonprofit organizations (National Opinion Research Center, RTI International, and the American Society of Trial Consultants), and for government agencies (White House Office of Management and Budget, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. General Accounting Office). Internationally, he has worked with the Office for National Statistics, London, UK; the London School of Economics and Political Science; the University of Amsterdam; the University of Johannesburg; the Australian Market and Social Research Society's Professional Development Program; and ZUMA (in Mannheim, Germany). He has provided expert testimony in court and has served as an on-air election-night television commentator.
Dr. Krosnick also has served as a consultant to such organizations as Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, the CBS Office of Social Research, ABC News, the NIH, Home Box Office, NASA, the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the Internal Revenue Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute, and Google. From 2005 through 2011, he was the co-principal investigator of the American National Election Studies. Dr. Krosnick received a B.A. degree in psychology from Harvard University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in social psychology from the University of Michigan.
Neal F. Lane is the senior fellow in science and technology policy at the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University. He is also the Malcolm Gillis University Professor at Rice and professor in the department of physics and astronomy. From 1998 to 2001, Dr. Lane served in the federal government as assistant to the president for science and technology and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). He also served as director of NSF and member (ex officio) of the National Science Board from 1993 to 1998. Before his post with NSF, Dr. Lane was provost and professor of physics at Rice, a position he had held since 1986. He first came to the university in 1966, when he joined the Department of Physics as an assistant professor. In 1972, he became professor of physics and space physics and astronomy. He left Rice from mid-1984 to 1986 to serve as chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Additionally, from 1979 to 1980, while on leave from Rice, he worked at the NSF as director of the Division of Physics. In 2009 Dr. Lane was awarded the National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal, the American Institute of Physics K.T. Compton Medal, and the Association of Rice Alumni Gold Medal. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and other honorary and professional associations. Dr. Lane received his B.S., M.S, and Ph.D. in physics from the University of Oklahoma.
Anthony Leiserowitz is director of the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and a research scientist at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University. He is a widely recognized expert on American and international public opinion on global warming, including public perception of climate change risks, support and opposition for climate policies, and willingness to make individual behavioral change. His research investigates the psychological, cultural, political, and geographic factors that influence public environmental perception and behavior. He has conducted survey, experimental, and field research at scales ranging from the global to the local, including international studies; investigations of the United States, as well as individual states (Alaska and Florida) and municipalities (New York City); and with the Inupiaq Eskimo of Northwest Alaska. He also conducted the first empirical assessment of worldwide public values, attitudes, and behaviors regarding global sustainability, including environmental protection, economic growth, and human development. He has served as a consultant to the John F. Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University), the United Nations Development Program, the Gallup World Poll, the Global Roundtable on Climate Change at the Earth Institute (Columbia University), and the World Economic Forum. He also has authored numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals, reports, and book chapters. Dr. Leiserowitz earned a B.A. in International Relations from Michigan State University and a Ph.D. in Environmental Science, Studies, and Policy from the University of Oregon.
Alan Leshner has been chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and executive publisher of the journal Science since 2001. AAAS was founded in 1848 and is the world's largest, multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering society. Before coming to AAAS, Dr. Leshner held leadership positions at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He served as the deputy director and acting director of the National Institute of Mental Health. He then became director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in 1994, a position he held until 2001. Dr. Leshner began his career at Bucknell University, where he was professor of psychology for 10 years. Then he went to the National Science Foundation and held a variety of senior positions focusing on basic research in the biological, behavioral, and social sciences; science policy; and science education. Dr. Leshner also has held long-term appointments at the Postgraduate Medical School in Budapest, Hungary; the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center; and as a Fulbright Scholar at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Dr. Leshner is the author of a major textbook on the relationship between hormones and behavior and has published more than 150 papers for both the scientific and lay communities on the biology of behavior, science and technology policy, science education, and public engagement with science.
Dr. Leshner has been awarded six honorary Doctor of Science degrees. He is an elected fellow of AAAS, the National Academy of Public Administration, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and many other professional societies. He is a member (and on the governing Council) of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Leshner was appointed to the National Science Board in 2004 and reappointed in 2011. He also served as a member of the Advisory Committee to the director of the NIH and is currently on the Scientific Advisory Board for the U.S. Department of Justice. Dr. Leshner received an undergraduate degree in psychology from Franklin and Marshall College and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physiological psychology from Rutgers University.
Eric Loewen is chief consulting engineer for advanced plants technology at General Electric-Hitachi Nuclear Energy in Wilmington, N.C. His position involves promoting sodium-cooled reactor technology and the electrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel as options for President Obama’s blue ribbon commission on the future of nuclear energy.
As the American Nuclear Society's 2005 Congressional Fellow, Dr. Loewen worked in the office of Senator Chuck Hagel (R-NE) to coordinate the senator's inclusion of legislation addressing global climate change policy—America's first such legislation—into the Energy Act of 2005. Previously, Dr. Loewen worked for the Idaho National Laboratory as part of the team developing a Generation IV lead-bismuth cooled reactor and proliferation-resistant thoria-urania fuel. He served in the Navy from 1982 to 1993.
Dr. Loewen received his B.S. in mathematics and chemistry from Western State College and an M.S. in nuclear engineering and a Ph.D. in engineering physics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He is currently president of the American Nuclear Society.
Arthur Lupia is the Hal R. Varian Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan and research professor at its Institute for Social Research. His research clarifies how information and institutions affect policy and politics, with a focus on how people make decisions when they lack information. He draws from multiple scientific and philosophical disciplines and uses multiple research methods. Dr. Lupia’s topics of expertise include information processing, persuasion, strategic communication, and civic competence. Among his published books are The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know? (1998); Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality (2000); Stealing the Initiative: How State Government Reacts to Direct Democracy (2001); and The Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science (2011). Dr. Lupia has held a range of scientific leadership positions, including principal investigator of the American National Election Studies. He also has developed new means for researchers to better serve science and society. As a founder of TESS (Time-Sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences), he has helped hundreds of scientists from many disciplines run innovative experiments on opinion formation and change using nationally representative subject pools. He is regularly asked to advise scientific organizations and research groups on how to effectively communicate science in politicized contexts. He currently serves as an executive member of the Board of Directors of Climate Central. Dr. Lupia is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow and a recipient of the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiatives in Research. Dr. Lupia received a B.A. in economics from the University of Rochester and his Ph.D. in social science from the California Institute of Technology.
Edward Maibach joined the George Mason University faculty in 2007 to create the Center for Climate Change Communication. Trained in public health and communication, he has extensive experience as an academic researcher and a communication and social marketing practitioner in government, business, and the nonprofit sector. His research focuses on the broad question of how public engagement in climate change can be expanded and enhanced. Dr. Maibach is currently a principal investigator on several climate change education grants funded by the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He also serves on the National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee and advises a wide range of organizations on how to improve their climate change communication, education, and outreach. Previously, Dr. Maibach served as associate director of the National Cancer Institute, worldwide director of social marketing for Porter Novelli, chairman of the board for Kidsave International, and as a faculty member at Emory and George Washington Universities. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and his edited book Designing Health Messages earned a distinguished book award from the National Communication Association. Dr. Maibach received a B.A. in social psychology from the University of California, San Diego; a M.P.H. from San Diego State University, and a Ph.D. in communication research from Stanford University. In 2010, Dr. Maibach was awarded George Mason University’s highest honor: University Professor.
Matthew Nisbet is associate professor of communication and affiliate associate professor of environmental science at American University. He studies the role of communication and media in policy-making and public affairs, focusing on issues related to science, sustainability, and the environment. He is the author of more than 50 peer-reviewed studies, book chapters, and monographs, and he serves on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Press/Politics and Science Communication. His scholarship has appeared in high-impact disciplinary journals as well as interdisciplinary outlets such as BMC Public Health and the American Journal of Public Health. According to ISI Web of Science, his work has been cited more than 700 times in the peer-reviewed literature and in more than 200 books. Dr. Nisbet is a health policy investigator with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and an inaugural member of the Google Science Communication Fellows program. A 2011 editorial in the journal Nature cited Dr. Nisbet's research as "essential reading for anyone with a passing interest in the climate change debate" and the New Republic highlighted his work as a “fascinating dissection of the failures of climate change activism.” At American University, he directs the Climate Shift Project, an interdisciplinary network of faculty and students producing research on the debates over climate change and energy policy. He received an A.B. in government from Dartmouth College, a M.S. in communication from Cornell University, and a Ph.D. in communication from Cornell University.
Miles O'Brien is a 30-year broadcast news veteran who has successfully melded a talent for telling complex stories in accessible terms with a lifelong passion for aviation, space, science and technology. He is the science correspondent for the PBS NewsHour and chief correspondent for the National Science Foundation series “Science Nation” and the Discovery Science Channel series “Innovation Nation”. He has done several documentaries for PBS - four on transportation an infrastructure issued for the WNET Blueprint America project and one for WGBH Frontline: “Flying Cheap” focused on the crash of Continental Flight 3407 and safety concerns surrounding the rise if regional airlines.
He is Managing Editor of “This Week in Space” - a popular webcast found at www.SpaceflightNow.com and an advisor to NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden. He serves as Chairman of the Education and Public Outreach Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. For nearly 17 years he worked as a correspondent, anchor and producer for CNN based in Atlanta and New York serving as CNN's science, space, aviation, technology and environment correspondent and anchoring news and talk programs, including Science and Technology Week, CNN Saturday and Sunday Morning, Talkback Live, Headline News Primetime, CNN Live From…and CNN American Morning. O’Brien has received three Emmys, a DuPont and Peabody and numerous other prestigious awards over the years for his coverage of hurricanes, wars and politics in addition to his coverage of space, aviation, science, technology and the environment.
Hans Peter Peters is a senior researcher at the Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, section on Ethics in the Neurosciences, at Forschungszentrum Jülich, a research center of the Helmholtz Association in Germany, and adjunct professor of science journalism at the Free University of Berlin. His research addresses the role of the media in explaining the relationship between science and its social context. In particular, he focuses on the interdependencies between science and journalism, media coverage of science and scientific knowledge, and the effects of public science communication on public opinion, policy, and science itself. Dr. Peters has served as principal investigator of several research projects. He has studied the German public's perception of the Chernobyl disaster, public meaning construction of global climate change, public opinion on food biotechnology in Germany and the USA, interactions between scientists and journalists, and cognitive responses of media audiences to media stories about biotechnology and other science-related topics. Current research projects deal with the science-media interface, the journalistic transformation of scientific information, and the role of mass media in science governance. Dr. Peters has published many journal articles, book chapters, and books about public communication and perception of science and technology, including "Interactions with the Mass Media" (Science 321, 11 July 2008), "Culture and technological innovation" (International Journal of Public Opinion Research 19, 2007), and "The Committed are Hard to Persuade: Recipients' Thoughts during Exposure to Newspaper and TV Stories on Genetic Engineering and their Effect on Attitudes" (New Genetics & Society 19, 2000). After a journalism traineeship, Dr. Peters studied social science and physics and took his degree ("Staatsexamen") in 1981 at the University of Cologne. He received his Ph.D. in social science from the Ruhr-University of Bochum. He is a member of the Scientific Committee of the International Network on Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST) and serves on the editorial advisory boards of Science Communication and the Journal of Science Communication.
David Pogue writes the technology column for The New York Times every week and for Scientific American every month. On television, he writes and hosts science and technology stories for CBS Sunday Morning. He was the host of PBS's NOVA miniseries "Making Stuff" in 2011; he's the host of its upcoming special, "Hunting the Elements" (airing in April 2012); and he's the new host of PBS's NOVA scienceNow series, premiering in the fall of 2012. With more than three million books in print, Mr. Pogue is one of the world's bestselling "how-to" authors. He wrote or co-wrote seven books in the "for Dummies" series (including Macs, Magic, Opera, and Classical Music). In 1999, he launched his own series of complete, funny computer books called the "Missing Manual" series, which now includes 120 titles. His bestselling books in that series are iPhone: The Missing Manual, Mac OS X Lion: The Missing Manual, and Windows 7: The Missing Manual. Mr. Pogue graduated summa cum laude from Yale, with distinction in music, and he spent 10 years conducting and arranging Broadway musicals in New York. He has won an Emmy, a Loeb award for journalism, and an honorary doctorate in music. He has been profiled on "48 Hours" and "60 Minutes." He lives in Connecticut with his three children.
Dr. Press was President of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council from 1981 to 1993 and Science Advisor to the President of the United States, and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy from 1977 to 1981. Prior to that, he was Professor of Geophysics at the MIT Chairman of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Dr. Press was also Professor of Geophysics at the California Institute of Technology. He is a life member of the MIT Corporation, a Board Member of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory and was a Board Member of Rockefeller University and the Sloan Foudation. He is the recipient of the U.S. National Medal of Science, the Japan Prize, the Lomonosov Medal of the Russian Academy of Science, the Legion d’ Honneur of France. He was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Society, and the Academies of Science of France, Russia, and Japan. He is a founding Principal of the Washington Advisory Group (now Advisory Group at Huron).
Valerie Reyna is professor of human development and psychology at Cornell University and a co-director of the Center for Behavioral Economics and Decision Research and the Cornell University Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility. She is also past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making. Dr. Reyna's research encompasses human judgment and decision- making, numeracy and quantitative reasoning, risk and uncertainty, medical decision-making, social judgment, and false memory. She is a developer of fuzzy-trace theory, a model widely applied in law, medicine, and public health. Her recent work has focused on aging, neurocognitive impairment, and genetic risk factors; rationality and risky decision-making, particularly risk taking in adolescence; and neuroimaging models of framing and decision-making. She also has extended fuzzy-trace theory to risk perception, numeracy, and dual processes in medical decision-making by both physicians and patients. In addition, Dr. Reyna teaches an undergraduate and a graduate seminar on risk and rational decision-making. Dr. Reyna has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is also a Fellow of the Division of Experimental Psychology, the Division of Developmental Psychology, the Division of Educational Psychology, and the Division of Health Psychology of the American Psychological Association, and she is a Fellow of the American Psychological Society. Dr. Reyna has been a visiting professor at the Mayo Clinic, a permanent member of study sections of the NIH, and a member on advisory panels for the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences. Other professional credits include Dr. Reyna's appointment as senior research advisor in the U.S. Department of Education, where she oversaw research grant policies and programs. Dr. Reyna was also appointed associate editor of Psychological Science, a leading journal in experimental psychology, and Developmental Review, the leading journal of literature review and theory in developmental psychology. Dr. Reyna has received many years of research support from private foundations and from U.S. government agencies, and currently serves as principal investigator of two NIH grants. Dr. Reyna has a B.A. in psychology from Clark University and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Rockefeller University.
Barbara Schaal's career as a leading evolutionary biologist began with a youthful fascination with plants. Currently the Mary-Dell Chilton Distinguished Professor at Washington University in St. Louis, she is recognized for her work on the genetics of plant species. In particular, she has been recognized for her studies that use DNA sequences to understand evolutionary processes, such as gene flow, geographical differentiation, and the domestication of crop species. In her research, Dr. Schaal often collaborates with students and researchers from the Missouri Botanical Gardens. She studies plants native to the United States, as well as tropical crops and their wild relatives. Her work has been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Schaal was on the faculty of the University of Houston and The Ohio State University before joining Washington University in 1980. She has been president of the Botanical Society of America and president of the Society for the Study of Evolution. In 2005, Dr. Schaal became the first woman elected to the vice presidency of the National Academy of Sciences. Since 2009, she has served on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Born in Berlin, Germany, Dr. Schaal grew up in Chicago and graduated from the University of Illinois, Chicago, with a B.S. in biology. She earned her Ph.D. from Yale University.
Dietram A. Scheufele is the John E. Ross Professor in Science Communication at the University of Wisconsin- Madison and co-PI of the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University. He has published more than 130 peer-refereed articles, book chapters, and monographs dealing with public opinion on emerging technologies and the political effects of mass communication. Dr. Scheufele’s current research program focuses on public opinion dynamics surrounding controversial science, with an emphasis on the interplay among media, policymakers, and lay audiences. Dr. Scheufele has received much recognition for his work. He is one of only two mass communication scholars to win both early career awards in the discipline: the Young Scholar Award for outstanding early career research from the International Communication Association and the Hillier Krieghbaum Under-40 Award for outstanding achievement in teaching, research and public service from the Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication. He currently co-chairs the National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists, a joint committee of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Bar Association, and is a former member of the Nanotechnology Technical Advisory Group to the U.S. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Dr. Scheufele is past president of the Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research and has served on committees and advisory boards for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Political Science Association, the International Communication Association, the Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication, and numerous other organizations. Dr. Scheufele has been a tenured faculty member at Cornell University and a Shorenstein fellow at Harvard University. His consulting experience includes work for PBS, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and other corporate and public sector clients in China, Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates, and the U.S. Dr. Scheufele received his B.A. from the Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz Publizistik and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Lisa Schwartz's research focuses on learning how to enhance the quality of medical communication for the public, patients, physicians and policymakers. Her work, done in conjunction with Dr. Steven Woloshin, has two main approaches: improving the quality of messages about health conveyed to different audiences and preparing those audiences to make sense of the messages they receive. Her main focus is on the communication of medical statistics and information about the benefits and harms of screening and prescription drugs. Dr. Schwartz is professor of medicine and professor of community and family medicine at the Dartmouth Medical School. She also is a professor in the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice. She received her B.A. from SUNY-Binghamton, her M.D. from New York University School of Medicine, and a M.S. from Dartmouth Medical School.
Martin Storksdieck is the director of the Board on Science Education at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. He oversees studies that address a wide range of issues related to science education. His areas of interest include factors that influence what and how we learn when we do so voluntarily; how informal learning is connected to our behaviors, identities and beliefs; and how connections between schools and out-of-school learning can create and sustain lifelong interest in (science) learning. Dr. Storksdieck led a research team that investigated a model for involving research-based professionals in informal science education on the NSF-funded Portal to the Public project. Dr. Storksdieck has a wide range of professional experiences. He served as director of project development and senior researcher at the nonprofit Institute for Learning Innovation. He also was a science educator with a planetarium in Germany, where he developed shows and programs on global environmental change; served as editor, host, and producer for a weekly environmental news broadcast; and worked as an environmental consultant specializing in local environmental management systems. He holds a M.S. in biology from the Albert-Ludwigs University in Freiburg, Germany; an M.P.A. from Harvard University; and a Ph.D. in education from Leuphana University in Lüneburg, Germany.
For the past 30 years, Detlof von Winterfeldt has been active in teaching, research, university administration, and consulting. He has taught courses in statistics, decision analysis, risk analysis, systems analysis, research design, and behavioral decision research. His research interests are the foundation and practice of decision and risk analysis as applied to technology development, environmental risks, natural hazards, and terrorism. Dr. von Winterfeldt is the co-author or co-editor of four books or edited volumes and more than 100 articles, chapters, and reports on decision and risk analysis and other related topics. As a consultant, he has applied decision and risk analysis to many management problems of government and private industry. He has served on several committees and panels of the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), including a recent appointment to the NAS Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications. He is a fellow of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) and the Society for Risk Analysis. In 2000, he received the Ramsey Medal for distinguished contributions to decision analysis from the Decision Analysis Society of INFORMS. Dr. von Winterfeldt received his Ph.D. in mathematical psychology from the University of Michigan.
Steven Woloshin's research interest is in learning how to enhance the quality of medical communication to the public, patients, physicians and policymakers. His work (in collaboration with Dr. Lisa Schwartz) has 2 main approaches: improving the quality of messages presenting health information to people, and preparing audiences to make sense of the messages they receive. His main focus is on the communication of medical statistics and information about the benefits and harms of screening and prescription drugs. Dr. Woloshin is professor of medicine and professor of community and family medicine at the Dartmouth Medical School. He also is a professor in the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice. He received his B.A. from Boston University, his M.D. from Boston University School of Medicine, and an M.S. from Dartmouth Medical School.