I was born and grew up in Boston MA. I received a BSc from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1947, an MA from Dartmouth in 1948, and a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1952, all in Physics. I was on the faculty of the University of Chicago from 1952 to 1981 when I was the Louis Block Professor of Physics and Biology. From 1981 to 1996 I was a Senior Science Advisor in the Exxon Corporate Research Laboratory, Since retiring in 1996, I have maintained post-retirement positions in the Physics and Astronomy Department of Rutgers University and the Chemistry and Chemical Biology Department of Princeton University.

Research Interests

My most recent publications have been on electronic structure methodology and on the emergence of left-right asymmetry in embryonic development. I am currently concerned with using the tools of statistical physics to explore how the wealth distribution in an economy reflects the society's tendency to compromise between economic growth and economic fairness.

Membership Type


Election Year


Primary Section

Section 33: Applied Physical Sciences

Secondary Section

Section 13: Physics