The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 to address the government's urgent need for an independent advisor on scientific matters. As science began to play an ever-increasing role in national priorities and public life, the National Academy of Sciences expanded to include the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) in 1970. The organizations are known collectively as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
Established: 1863
Membership: Approximately 2,200 members 400 foreign associates
President: Ralph J. Cicerone
Executive Officer: Bruce B. Darling
Executive Director: Kenneth R. Fulton


National Academy of Engineering (NAE)
Established: 1964
Membership: Approximately 2,200 members and 200 foreign associates
President: C. D. (Dan) Mote Jr.
Executive Officer: Lance A. Davis


National Academy of Medicine (NAM)
Established: 1970 as the Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Medicine in 2015
Membership: Approximately 1,700 members and 100 foreign associates
President: Victor J. Dzau
Executive Officer: Clyde J. Behney


National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Program Units
Chair: Ralph J. Cicerone
Vice Chair: C. D. (Dan) Mote Jr.
Executive Officer: Bruce B. Darling
Deputy Executive Officer: James F. Hinchman

Program Units

Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE)
Chair: Kenneth Prewitt
Executive Director: Robert M. Hauser

Division on Earth and Life Studies (DELS)
Chair: Barbara A. Schaal
Executive Director: Gregory H. Symmes

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS)
Chair: Steven E. Koonin
Executive Director: Peter D. Blair

Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Chair: Victor J. Dzau
Executive Director: Clyde J. Behney

Division on Policy and Global Affairs (PGA)
Chair: James J. Duderstadt
Executive Director: Richard E. Bissell

Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Division Chair: Susan Hanson
Executive Director: Neil J. Pedersen

Gulf Research Program
Chair: Thomas O. Hunter
Executive Director: Chris Elfring

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