Augustus Addison Gould was one of the nineteenth century’s preeminent zoologists. Focusing largely on mollusks and conchs, Gould classified and described them, naming several different species and noting previous instances where the same species had been given two or more different names by different researchers. He was one of the first zoologists to closely examine the geographical distribution of various species, and he contributed to the development of classification systems. In his medical career he did early research into the geographic spread of tuberculosis, using U.S. census data. Gould was a charter member of the National Academy of Sciences.