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Using Monkey Models to Understand and Develop Treatments for Human Brain Disorders

January 7-8, 2019
Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center, Irvine, CA
Organized by: Bob Wurtz (National Institutes of Health), Beth Buffalo (University of Washington), Tony Movshon (New York University)

In recent decades, mice have become the dominant animal model for studying the basis of human physiology and disease because they are genetically tractable and have bodily functions broadly similar to ours. But in the specific study of higher brain functions and brain disorders, the differences between mice and humans are great, and monkeys provide the best practical model for the human brain. However, the principles which would rationally lead an investigator to choose a monkey model over a mouse are nowhere clearly articulated.

This two-day colloquium considered a core set of functions for which monkey models are critical. The colloquium began by comparing human and monkey brains and behavior, and then framed the conversation with a comparison between monkey and mouse. Successive sessions then considered domains in which monkey models have proved valuable: disorders of development, aging, and mood, and restoration of sensory and motor functions.

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Agenda

Monday, January 7, 2019

8:15 AM  INTRODUCTION: FROM BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL APPLICATION Bob Wurtz, National Institutes of Health

Session 1:  BRAINS AND BEHAVIOR: HUMANS, MONKEYS AND MICE

8:30 AM  Cortical structure, function, and connectivity in humans and nonhuman primates, David Van Essen, Washington University, St. Louis

9:15 AM  Comparing monkeys and mice as behavioral models for humans, John Maunsell, University of Chicago 

10:00 AM Species differences in the sub-cortical control of cortical processing, Anita Disney, Duke University

Session 2:  DISORDERS OF DEVELOPMENT

11:15 AM Clinical Perspective, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, University College London 

11:30 AM The primate hippocampus: ontogeny and early insult, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Emory University

1:15 PM Effects of early experience on brain development, Mar Sanchez, Emory University

2:00 PM Understanding the development of amblyopia using macaque monkey models, Lynne Kiorpes, New York University

Session 3: DISORDERS OF AGING

2:45 PM Clinical Perspective – Allan Levey, Emory University

3:00 PM Age-related cognitive decline in rodents and monkeys, Carol Barnes, University of Arizona 

4:15 PM Alzheimer’s-like pathology in aged rhesus macaques, Amy Arnsten, Yale University

5:00 PM Synaptic Health: Implications for Cognitive Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease, John Morrison, University of California, Davis

Session 4: MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR MONKEY RESEARCH

5:45 PM Genetic disease models in monkeys, Guoping Feng, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

6:30 PM Selective optogenetic control in the monkey brain, Gregory Horwitz, University of Washington

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Session 5: RESTORATION OF SENSORY FUNCTIONS

8:00 AM Clinical Perspective, Lawrence Tychsen, Washington University in St. Louis

8:15 AM Targeting neuronal cell types in monkey retina, Botond Roska, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel

9:00 AM Vision Restoration : Translation To The Clinic, José-Alain Sahel, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Session 6: RESTORATION OF MOTOR FUNCTIONS

9:45 AM Clinical Perspective, Michael Goldberg, Columbia University 

10:00 AM Understanding Parkinson's disease and Deep Brain Stimulation, Jerrold Vitek, University of Minnesota 

11:15 AM Thought to action, Richard Andersen, California Institute of Technology

12:00 PM Control of the hand, Andrew Schwartz, University of Pittsburgh

Session 7: DISORDERS OF MOOD

1:45 PM Clinical Perspective, Helen Mayberg, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

2:00 PM The Neural Substrate for the Brain - Body Connection,  Peter Strick, University of Pittsburgh

2:45 PM Neuronal circuits related to emotion, Okihide Hikosaka, National Institutes of Health

3:30 PM Prefrontal circuits related to anhedonia and anxiety, Angela Roberts, Cambridge University

4:15  PM Neural mechanisms that underlie interactions between emotion and cognition, Daniel Salzman, Columbia University

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