I grew up in New York City and its suburb Eastchester, went to Harvard College (’63) where I majored in biochemical sciences . I spent a year as a a graduate student at the then Rockefeller Institute and then went to Harvard Medical School (’68) where I became interested in neuroscience. I was a medical intern at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and was Bob Wurtz’s first postdoc at the NIH (1969-72). , and then did neurology at the Harvard Longwood Program (1972-74). I spent three years at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research (1974-’78) Institute doing behavioral neurophysiology, and the 24 years at the Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research at the NEI. I passed boards In Neurology in 1976, and attending in neurology at Georgetown (1976-2001). I moved to Columbia in 2001 where I am David Mahoney Professor of Brain and Behavior in Neuroscience and Neurology and senior attending neurologist at the New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Research Interests

My lab works on systems neuroscience in awake, behaving monkeys, studying the physiology of cognition, using vision and eye movements as a probe. I am currently working on the role of oculomotor proprioception in long-term memory, the role of acetyl choline in arousal and motivation, the role of the cerebellum in visuomotor association - we have the first solid evidence in the monkey for the cerebellum's role in non-motor learning- and the role of the parahippocampal gyrus in spatial perception.

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Election Year


Primary Section

Section 28: Systems Neuroscience

Secondary Section

Section 52: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences