Herbert Kroemer

University of California, Santa Barbara

Primary Section: 33, Applied Physical Sciences
Secondary Section: 31, Engineering Sciences
Membership Type:
Emeritus (elected 2003)

Research Interests

Most of my research interests concern the Physics and Technology of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices. Within this broad field, there have been four overlapping areas of emphasis: (a) Semiconductor heterostructures have been a dominant theme from the beginning of my research career, starting with an inquiry into the effects of energy gap variations on the carrier transport in structures containing a position-dependent gap. This led to device concepts such as heterostructure bipolar transistors and double-heterostructure lasers. Work on the physics of the band lineups at abrupt hetero-interfaces followed, which in turn led to continuing research on quantum well and superlattice structures. (b) A second area, also dating from the beginning of my research career, has been nonlinear electron transport, especially negative-resistance effects at high electric fields, ranging from the Gunn effect in bulk semiconductors to Bloch oscillations in superlattices. (c) Molecular-beam epitaxy technology of semiconductor systems other than the GaAs/AlGaAs system -- and of heterostructures based on them -- was an important area of my research from 1977 through 1999. (d) Straddling the border between semiconductors and supercondutors is research on semiconductor-coupled superconductive weak links in the almost unexplored near-ballistic "clean" limit.

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